Thursday, 31 December 2015

Mapping Mountains – 2015 Retrospective


For this year’s retrospective I’ll concentrate on its highlights and throw in a few statistics and hill reclassifications on the way and end with a summary of where I hope the site will go in 2016.  But before then let’s have an introspective interlude:

When the Mapping Mountains site was first activated toward the end of 2013 I had a number of ideas for its content, but it has taken at least a year to fully establish in my own mind a way forward and how to construct this via a web based blog.  Therefore, during 2015 I'd like to think that the Mapping Mountains site has become more refined in its content and has found its niche amongst the hill related sites available on the Web.

This has involved building upon the foundation of the previous year with the inclusion of a number of new Page Headings, these include details relating to Summit Relocations and Significant Height Revisions, these compliment the Hill Reclassifications heading that had already been established.  These headings relate directly to the Trimble surveys and their results, and it is still these surveys that lead the content of this site.


As the site is mainly led by the surveys conducted with the Trimble it is sometimes hard to get away from statistics, and the ones relating to the Mapping Mountains site are encouraging as during the past year there have been over 39,700 page views compared to the 22,294 from 28.11.13 – 31.12.14, with another 264 posts being uploaded to the blog compared to the 200 that had already appeared.  Although I have a tremendous amount of fun with the blog, it is very time consuming and this was evidenced between April and May when I posted on 34 consecutive days, a record.  However, this record was short lived and somewhat smashed to smithereens as on the 21st November when Simon Glover’s article was published it was the 120th consecutive day that I had uploaded a post on the site – phew!

Simon’s article was a part of the Guest Contributor heading and this has proved another success during 2015, with articles published by John Kirk, Richard Moss, Adrian Hendroff, Robin N Campbell, Carole Engel and Simon Glover.  For me, this is one of the joys of the blog as it involves approaching and communicating with people who I have the utmost respect for, and with their permission publishing articles that they have written.  Hopefully the following year will see more Guest Contributor articles appear.

These Guest Contributor articles are definitely one of the joys and highlights of running the blog.  There have been other highlights during the year which I’ll briefly detail in the following paragraphs, but above all others the one that stands out is when I was approached in early July by the National Library of Wales (NLW) for the Mapping Mountains site to be archived in their Permanent Collections.  I was chuffed to bits when this happened and still awestruck many months later.

Other highlights include the ones associated with G&J Surveys when we appeared in part three and five of a six programme series for ITV Wales entitled ‘The Mountain’.  Along with The Munro Society we were also invited to take part in a film about Scotland being produced by a German television company named ARD.  However, although these two films proved interesting, it was the involvement with Leland Carlson and his book on the ‘Dull Men of Great Britain’ that proved the most entertaining, with its launch party at Stanfords in London.  Another rather funny episode happened when the media mistakenly reported that Moelwyn Mawr had been demoted from mountain status, an easy thing to do when one considers that our survey that demoted said mountain was to one that the Nuttall’s have named Moelwyn Mawr North Ridge Top.  The story goes that many a Blaenau Ffestiniog resident was having sleepless nights due to their mountain being demoted, dependent upon one’s point of view, this could be considered as a wee bit funny, I thought it hilarious.  Outside of G&J Surveys I was asked to advice on a film being shot in Snowdonia by Daria Martin who is an American conceptual artist, and the weekend doing so proved a highly enjoyable experience.







Although there have been a number of highlights during the past year it is still the surveying with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 that leads the impetus behind the blog, and the following are the major hill reclassifications either instigated by surveying with the Trimble during 2015,  or those announced during the last year:


Ynys Tywyn (SH 571 385) – new 30m-99m Sub-Tumpau

Pen Diban (SH 112 205) – new Pellennig

Pt. 422m (SO 073 822) – deleted Pedwar

Wenallt (SN 933 571) – deleted Pedwar

Carreg yr Eryr (SH 526 378) – new 30m-99m Twmpau

Castell Cricieth (SH 500 377) – new 30m-99m Twmpau

Pt. 650m (SH 660 452) – deleted Uchaf

Bryn Serth (SO 147 109) – deleted Pedwar

Twyn Walter (SN 828 175) – deleted 500m Twmpau

Banc Bronderwgoed (SN 871 987) – deleted Pedwar

Ynys Arw (SH 266 945) – new Pellennig

Bera Mawr (SH 674 682) – deleted 700m Twmpau

Bersham Bank (SJ 311 481) – new 100m Twmpau

Knocknaveacal North Top (V 744 562) – deleted Irish 500-Metre Top (J Fitzgerald survey)

The Pimple (SJ 299 472) – new 100m Sub-Twmpau

Pt. 68m (SH 383 949) – deleted Dominant


Two hills of interest that are not included in the above list are; Banc y Celyn (SO 047 464) whose bwlch was surveyed giving the hill 102.1m of drop, and which has now been accepted as a Hump, and Bram Rigg Top (SD 668 964) which was surveyed as having 14.7m of drop, which is insufficient for Nuttall status.

One aspect of the Mapping Mountains site which I enjoy is having the opportunity to include hill related things that I have produced prior to its existence, one of these is the Table to the List of Irish Hill Lists.  This Table was inspired by Jeff Parr’s List of Lists and forms a comprehensive study of all hill lists to Irish hills that exist up to and including 1999.  When time permits I hope to extend the detail in the Table nearer to the present day.  Another retrospective included on the blog during the last year was the 'Mountain Biking the Hill Boundary of Powys' article, with each of the ten blog posts being posted 25 years after it had taken place. 



The place-name research with Aled continued with the highlight of the year being a day in the Weston Library at Oxford University studying the ‘Returns’ to the ‘Parochial Queries’ which were produced by Edward Llwyd in the late 1600’s / early 1700’s.  These form an important part in the historical documentation of Welsh upland place-names, and the day proved a wonderful experience hunting through old documents and finding names that have been passed down from one generation to the next.

Another highlight of 2015 was the island trips organised by Adrian Rayner, these proved stunning and I took the opportunity to visit as many as Adrian organised within Wales.  These included Ynys Gwylan Fawr, Ynys Tudwal Fach, Ynys Tudwal Fawr, Ynys Aberteifi, Ynysoedd y Moelroniaid and a separate trip to Ynys Enlli.




And what is in store for 2016?  This will partly be led by the Trimble as when the blog was made public in late November 2013 my initial hope was that 100 P30’s would be surveyed each year, and last year’s total of 150 has almost been matched this year with over 140 P30’s having been surveyed.  Many of these also include the respective bwlch, with a number of subs and P15’s also Trimbled.  Over 430 hill surveys have taken place during the past year which compares favourably with the 440 previously done.

Next year will also see the continued publication of Y Trechol – the Dominant Hills of Wales, and it is the last year’s publication of hill lists that gives me the sense of greatest achievement (oops, almost forget the NLW).  These have included Y Pellennig – The Remotest Hills of Wales (co-authored with Aled Williams) being published by Europeaklist, Haroldstreet, Geof Crowder’s v-g.me website and Mapping Mountains.  The higher height bands of the Twmpau (thirty welsh metre prominences and upward) have also been published with the 100m height bands from 500m upward appearing on the Mapping Mountains site.  The Welsh 500m P15s (co-authored with Aled Williams) has also been introduced with their totals given, and now Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales has started to be published.  Prior to the Mapping Mountains site I had always been reliant upon the kindness of people like Geoff Crowder and Mark Trengove to publish listings that I had been involved in, having the Mapping Mountains site has opened up so many possibilities that I am prone to get overly enthused on occasion!







However enthusiastic I am prone to get, it is the thought that some people find what I produce to be of sufficient interest to keep returning to the Mapping Mountains site that fills me with greatest joy and this bolsters my enthusiasm, so many thanks for visiting the blog and I hope you enjoy the New Year and have fun on the hills you visit during 2016.


Myrddyn Phillips

Wednesday, 30 December 2015

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Glyderau


Hill Lists – Cymru / Wales

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Introduction

To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}


Glyder Fawr (SH 642 579) is situated in the Glyderau Group of hills and is listed as one of The Dominant Hills of Wales

Listings of hills in Britain have progressed since Sir Hugh Munro first compiled a list to the Scottish 3,000ft mountains that eponymously now bear his name of the Munros.  Since Sir Hugh’s list was first published in the 1891 Scottish Mountaineering Club Journal the concept of how to differentiate one hill from another has developed with this association now mainly relying upon what is referred to as prominence.  This term is also known as reascent and drop, with this being the height gain between summit and connecting bwlch to the higher parent peak via the watershed.

Although differentiating one hill from another mainly relies upon prominence, it is not the only tool used to do so, as such criterion as distance, and height and prominence combined have also been used.  But prominence is now the main criterion used to differentiate one hill from another.

The concept of prominence was first investigated by the early hill list authors such as Corbett and Moss who employed the use of a single ring contour in their listings.  This system for cataloguing hills relied upon maps of the day that were based on ring contours at 50ft intervals, therefore a hill may be included that had a 5ft prominence or less because it had a separate ring contour, this is an obvious failing in this system.

However, Corbett had initialised the concept of objective judgment in how to make this all important differentiation between one hill and another, whereas Munro relied upon subjective judgment when he differentiated between his Separate Mountains (Munros) and their Subsidiary Tops (Munro Tops).

This objective judgement took its next stage forward when Carr and Lister used a 100ft criterion to differentiate one hill from another in their book to ‘The Mountains of Snowdonia’ which was published in 1925 by John Lane The Bodley Head Limited of London.  This use of 100ft by Carr and Lister can be considered as the first objective height differentiation and therefore the first use of how we now view the term prominence.

Although, as mentioned previously, there have been other use of criterion to differentiate one hill from another, there is a definite line between how the use of prominence has evolved, this line can be viewed as a link, but this link does not have many connecting parts to it, and up until the Dominant listing that this Introduction details, that connecting part only involved one link, and that is Relative Height, and now the second connecting link of Dominance has been added.

The difference between Prominence and Relative Height can be summarised as the following, with the explanation of Dominance then following:


Prominence is applied to hills whose qualification also depends upon minimum height.


Relative Height is applied to hills whose qualification is just dependent upon a minimum prominence.


Dominance is applied to hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.


For those that are not initiated with the intricacies of hill list criteria the above explanation can sometimes be a difficult concept to understand, but the essence being is that Prominence is used as part of a criteria in conjunction with another criterion which is usually Minimum Height, whereas Relative Height is normally used as a singular criterion that is not dependent upon any form of minimum height except for that stipulated for its relative height, whereas Dominance relies upon the relationship between the hill’s prominence and its absolute height and is part of a criteria in conjunction with another criterion which is Minimum Height.

The first use of what we now refer to as Relative Height in a published hill list was by Eric Yeaman in his ‘Handbook of the Scottish Hills’ which was published in 1989 by Wafaida.  However, the term Relative Height was coined by Alan Dawson for the Marilyns which were first published in ‘The Relative Hills of Britain’ book by Cicerone Press in 1992.

These two publications dispensed with the concept of Prominence with Eric Yeaman using 100m of Relative Height as the main part of his Scottish list and Alan Dawson using 150m for his British list.

The next link in this small chain that takes in Prominence and Relative Height is Dominance, and therefore Dominance can be viewed as the next step in the evolutionary process of Prominence.

Dominance is a new concept for a published list to hills within Britain and to the knowledge of the author was first used for hills within Britain in early 2009 under the working title of ‘The Ultra Prominent Summits of Wales’, this title was shortened to the UPPs and was later changed to ‘The Dominant Hills of Wales.’  The change of name was instigated after a discussion with Mark Trengove who pointed out that the same concept of Dominance had been used by Eberhard Jurgalski in written format in 2001 and in published format in 2004, and as the 5,000ft prominence world peaks are known as the Ultras, their title having been shortened from the Ultra Prominent Peaks, it was sensible not to use a working title that was similar to another list that used different criteria.  Therefore, the title of Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales became the norm and the term of Dominance used to describe it, with the term Y Trechol being the Welsh for ‘The Dominants.’

The concept of Dominance was independently conceived by the author and was not copied from Eberhard as until discussing the concept of this list with Mark Trengove, I had not heard of Eberhard Jurgalski, but the term ‘Dominance’ follows Eberhard’s lead, as this is the norm when dealing with terms such as Prominence and Relative Height, each in turn were coined by someone and then they have become terms used by many.

To fulfil the qualification of a hill being Dominant its prominence has to be first known.  Therefore a Dominant list cannot be compiled unless the Prominence of each hill is known beforehand, and for a country such as Wales there are many hills that qualify under a stipulated minimum prominence of 30m.  I thought it wise to follow this minimum prominence figure as this had been previously used in a number of listings, these are briefly detailed below.

For Wales these 30m minimum prominence based lists were first published over a period of 20 years from 1984–2004.  These listings were reliant upon data produced by Terry Marsh, Michael Dewey and Myrddyn Phillips.  However, although all the lists produced by these people specified a minimum drop of 30m none of them listed the actual drop figure; this was added at a later date.  During this time listings to the majority of these hills were also independently produced by E. D. ‘Clem’ Clements whose work appeared on the RHB Yahoo Group database.

The theory of Dominance was conceptualized shortly after all the drop values were added to my hand written Master Lists and the 100m height bands expanded upward to include all P30 summits in Wales.  This Dominance criterion was conceptualized at approximately the same time as that of Remoteness, with both taking form from the same question – ‘what else can be considered once prominence values are given to all hills?’  Once this question was asked the theory of Dominance sprung in to my mind and that of Remoteness soon followed.

The Remoteness list was later published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website in 2011, and updated and co-authored with Aled Williams and published by Europeaklist, Haroldstreet and Mapping Mountains in April 2015.  But until now the Dominance list has never been published.


Before detailing what Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list consists of it may be prudent to detail the qualification for the main list:

Those P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.

Also included is a list to the Lesser Welsh Dominants, these are the additional P30 summits whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.



To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}



The list consists of the following:

Group:  Each hill appears under their Group, this is the group / range that the hill is a part of.  For example; Carnedd Llywelyn (SH 683 643) is part of the hill group known as the Carneddau.  The Groups are arranged from north to south on a west to east orientation.  The names of the Groups used in this list have received extensive input from Aled Williams.

Name:  This is considered the most appropriate name for the hill with respect to the information available to the author.  Sometimes the name used does not correspond to current Ordnance Survey map spelling and composition or the name may not appear on any map.  Where no appropriate name has been discovered for the hill from any source, the Point (for example; Pt. 78m) notation is used rather than making up a name that has no local or historical evidence of use.  The Welsh place-names that appear in this list and that were sourced from Ordnance Survey mapping are reproduced as simple compositions, with hyphenated and compound names reduced to the component elements.  It must be noted that this process will on occasion result in loss of pronunciation information and as such, is not ideal.  However, this protocol has been implemented in order to simplify the composition due to the inappropriate and inconsistent hyphen use that Ordnance Survey maps are prone to.

Dominance:  This is the Dominance of the hill’s height between bwlch and summit (its prominence) over that of its height from sea level (Ordnance Datum Newlyn) to its bwlch.  The Dominance is given as a percentage.

Region:  There are three Regions in Wales; North Wales, Mid and West Wales, and South Wales.  The Regional split of Wales used in this list has received extensive input from Aled Williams and will be detailed on the Mapping Mountains blog at a later date.

Sub-Region:  There are a number of Sub-Regions in Wales and those used in this list have received extensive input from Aled Williams and they will be detailed on the Mapping Mountains blog at a later date.

1:50,000 Map:  This column gives the number or numbers of the 1:50,000 Ordnance Survey Landranger map that the summit of the hill appears on.

1:25,000 Map:  This column gives the number or numbers of the 1:25,000 Ordnance Survey Explorer map that the summit of the hill appears on.

Grid Reference Summit:  This is the ten figure grid reference (10FGR) for the summit of the hill.  This has either been produced by an accurate survey, a map spot height or when neither is available by a centralised position in an uppermost contour ring.  When the accurate survey has been conducted independent of the Ordnance Survey a (S) for ‘survey’ will appear adjacent to the 10FGR, a (TP) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘trig pillar’, a (B) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘bolt’ or a ‘block’, a (L) if the 10FGR is taken to the position of a ‘levelled’ height on old maps, a (HH) if the 10FGR is taken from a ‘hand-held’ GPS unit, a (SH) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘spot height’ either on current or old maps and an (I) if the summit position has been ‘interpolated’ from contours.

Height (m) Summit:  This gives the map height in metres of the hill above Ordnance Datum Newlyn (ODN), often referred to as sea level.  Where a height is quoted to a decimal place it implies that the hill has been surveyed by GPS / GNSS receiver (these heights may not match current Ordnance Survey map heights).  Where a ‘c’ (circa) appears preceding the height it means there is no known spot height available and the height has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Grid Reference Bwlch:  This is the ten figure grid reference (10FGR) for the bwlch of the hill.  This has either been produced by an accurate survey, a map spot height or when neither is available by a centralised position between converging hill to hill and valley to valley contours.  When the accurate survey has been conducted independent of the Ordnance Survey a (S) for ‘survey’ will appear adjacent to the 10FGR, a (L) if the 10FGR is taken to the position of a ‘levelled’ height on old maps, a (HH) if the 10FGR is taken from a ‘hand-held’ GPS unit, a (SH) is the 10FGR is taken to a ‘spot height’ either on current or old maps and an (I) if the bwlch position has been ‘interpolated’ from contours.

Drop (m) Summit to Bwlch:  This column details the prominence of the hill; this is commonly referred to as ‘drop’ or ‘reascent’.  The drop is the height difference between the summit and connecting bwlch to the higher parent peak along the watershed.  The letter ‘c’ before the drop figure signifies there is no spot height or surveyed height known for either summit or more usually, the bwlch, therefore a part of the drop figure has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Drop (m) – Bwlch to ODN:  This gives the map height in metres of the bwlch above Ordnance Datum Newlyn (ODN), often referred to as sea level.  Where a height is quoted to a decimal place it implies that the bwlch has been surveyed by GPS / GNSS receiver (these heights may not match current Ordnance Survey map heights).  Where a ‘c’ (circa) appears preceding the height it means there is no known spot height available and the height has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Notes:  This column gives details relevant to the hill.


With special thanks to Aled Williams and Mark Trengove for their continued support and to Eberhard Jurgalski for taking Dominance to the masses.  Thanks are also due to the people who submit 10 figure grid references to the Database of British and Irish Hills (DoBIH) and for DoBIH making these available for public use.


This list will appear in biweekly or monthly instalments with the third Group listed being the Glyderau.  The Dominant Hills of Yr Wyddfa will appear on the 14th January 2016.

To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}








Thursday, 17 December 2015

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Carneddau


Hill Lists – Cymru / Wales

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Introduction

To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}


Carnedd Llywelyn (SH 683 643) is situated in the Carneddau Group of hills and is listed as one of The Dominant Hills of Wales

Listings of hills in Britain have progressed since Sir Hugh Munro first compiled a list to the Scottish 3,000ft mountains that eponymously now bear his name of the Munros.  Since Sir Hugh’s list was first published in the 1891 Scottish Mountaineering Club Journal the concept of how to differentiate one hill from another has developed with this association now mainly relying upon what is referred to as prominence.  This term is also known as reascent and drop, with this being the height gain between summit and connecting bwlch to the higher parent peak via the watershed.

Although differentiating one hill from another mainly relies upon prominence, it is not the only tool used to do so, as such criterion as distance, and height and prominence combined have also been used.  But prominence is now the main criterion used to differentiate one hill from another.

The concept of prominence was first investigated by the early hill list authors such as Corbett and Moss who employed the use of a single ring contour in their listings.  This system for cataloguing hills relied upon maps of the day that were based on ring contours at 50ft intervals, therefore a hill may be included that had a 5ft prominence or less because it had a separate ring contour, this is an obvious failing in this system.

However, Corbett had initialised the concept of objective judgment in how to make this all important differentiation between one hill and another, whereas Munro relied upon subjective judgment when he differentiated between his Separate Mountains (Munros) and their Subsidiary Tops (Munro Tops).

This objective judgement took its next stage forward when Carr and Lister used a 100ft criterion to differentiate one hill from another in their book to ‘The Mountains of Snowdonia’ which was published in 1925 by John Lane The Bodley Head Limited of London.  This use of 100ft by Carr and Lister can be considered as the first objective height differentiation and therefore the first use of how we now view the term prominence.

Although, as mentioned previously, there have been other use of criterion to differentiate one hill from another, there is a definite line between how the use of prominence has evolved, this line can be viewed as a link, but this link does not have many connecting parts to it, and up until the Dominant listing that this Introduction details, that connecting part only involved one link, and that is Relative Height, and now the second connecting link of Dominance has been added.

The difference between Prominence and Relative Height can be summarised as the following, with the explanation of Dominance then following:


Prominence is applied to hills whose qualification also depends upon minimum height.


Relative Height is applied to hills whose qualification is just dependent upon a minimum prominence.


Dominance is applied to hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.


For those that are not initiated with the intricacies of hill list criteria the above explanation can sometimes be a difficult concept to understand, but the essence being is that Prominence is used as part of a criteria in conjunction with another criterion which is usually Minimum Height, whereas Relative Height is normally used as a singular criterion that is not dependent upon any form of minimum height except for that stipulated for its relative height, whereas Dominance relies upon the relationship between the hill’s prominence and its absolute height and is part of a criteria in conjunction with another criterion which is Minimum Height.

The first use of what we now refer to as Relative Height in a published hill list was by Eric Yeaman in his ‘Handbook of the Scottish Hills’ which was published in 1989 by Wafaida.  However, the term Relative Height was coined by Alan Dawson for the Marilyns which were first published in ‘The Relative Hills of Britain’ book by Cicerone Press in 1992.

These two publications dispensed with the concept of Prominence with Eric Yeaman using 100m of Relative Height as the main part of his Scottish list and Alan Dawson using 150m for his British list.

The next link in this small chain that takes in Prominence and Relative Height is Dominance, and therefore Dominance can be viewed as the next step in the evolutionary process of Prominence.

Dominance is a new concept for a published list to hills within Britain and to the knowledge of the author was first used for hills within Britain in early 2009 under the working title of ‘The Ultra Prominent Summits of Wales’, this title was shortened to the UPPs and was later changed to ‘The Dominant Hills of Wales.’  The change of name was instigated after a discussion with Mark Trengove who pointed out that the same concept of Dominance had been used by Eberhard Jurgalski in written format in 2001 and in published format in 2004, and as the 5,000ft prominence world peaks are known as the Ultras, their title having been shortened from the Ultra Prominent Peaks, it was sensible not to use a working title that was similar to another list that used different criteria.  Therefore, the title of Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales became the norm and the term of Dominance used to describe it, with the term Y Trechol being the Welsh for ‘The Dominants.’

The concept of Dominance was independently conceived by the author and was not copied from Eberhard as until discussing the concept of this list with Mark Trengove, I had not heard of Eberhard Jurgalski, but the term ‘Dominance’ follows Eberhard’s lead, as this is the norm when dealing with terms such as Prominence and Relative Height, each in turn were coined by someone and then they have become terms used by many.

To fulfil the qualification of a hill being Dominant its prominence has to be first known.  Therefore a Dominant list cannot be compiled unless the Prominence of each hill is known beforehand, and for a country such as Wales there are many hills that qualify under a stipulated minimum prominence of 30m.  I thought it wise to follow this minimum prominence figure as this had been previously used in a number of listings, these are briefly detailed below.

For Wales these 30m minimum prominence based lists were first published over a period of 20 years from 1984–2004.  These listings were reliant upon data produced by Terry Marsh, Michael Dewey and Myrddyn Phillips.  However, although all the lists produced by these people specified a minimum drop of 30m none of them listed the actual drop figure; this was added at a later date.  During this time listings to the majority of these hills were also independently produced by E. D. ‘Clem’ Clements whose work appeared on the RHB Yahoo Group database.

The theory of Dominance was conceptualized shortly after all the drop values were added to my hand written Master Lists and the 100m height bands expanded upward to include all P30 summits in Wales.  This Dominance criterion was conceptualized at approximately the same time as that of Remoteness, with both taking form from the same question – ‘what else can be considered once prominence values are given to all hills?’  Once this question was asked the theory of Dominance sprung in to my mind and that of Remoteness soon followed.

The Remoteness list was later published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website in 2011, and updated and co-authored with Aled Williams and published by Europeaklist, Haroldstreet and Mapping Mountains in April 2015.  But until now the Dominance list has never been published.


Before detailing what Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list consists of it may be prudent to detail the qualification for the main list:

Those P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.

Also included is a list to the Lesser Welsh Dominants, these are the additional P30 summits whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.



To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}



The list consists of the following:

Group:  Each hill appears under their Group, this is the group / range that the hill is a part of.  For example; Carnedd Llywelyn (SH 683 643) is part of the hill group known as the Carneddau.  The Groups are arranged from north to south on a west to east orientation.  The names of the Groups used in this list have received extensive input from Aled Williams.

Name:  This is considered the most appropriate name for the hill with respect to the information available to the author.  Sometimes the name used does not correspond to current Ordnance Survey map spelling and composition or the name may not appear on any map.  Where no appropriate name has been discovered for the hill from any source, the Point (for example; Pt. 78m) notation is used rather than making up a name that has no local or historical evidence of use.  The Welsh place-names that appear in this list and that were sourced from Ordnance Survey mapping are reproduced as simple compositions, with hyphenated and compound names reduced to the component elements.  It must be noted that this process will on occasion result in loss of pronunciation information and as such, is not ideal.  However, this protocol has been implemented in order to simplify the composition due to the inappropriate and inconsistent hyphen use that Ordnance Survey maps are prone to.

Dominance:  This is the Dominance of the hill’s height between bwlch and summit (its prominence) over that of its height from sea level (Ordnance Datum Newlyn) to its bwlch.  The Dominance is given as a percentage.

Region:  There are three Regions in Wales; North Wales, Mid and West Wales, and South Wales.  The Regional split of Wales used in this list has received extensive input from Aled Williams and will be detailed on the Mapping Mountains blog at a later date.

Sub-Region:  There are a number of Sub-Regions in Wales and those used in this list have received extensive input from Aled Williams and they will be detailed on the Mapping Mountains blog at a later date.

1:50,000 Map:  This column gives the number or numbers of the 1:50,000 Ordnance Survey Landranger map that the summit of the hill appears on.

1:25,000 Map:  This column gives the number or numbers of the 1:25,000 Ordnance Survey Explorer map that the summit of the hill appears on.

Grid Reference Summit:  This is the ten figure grid reference (10FGR) for the summit of the hill.  This has either been produced by an accurate survey, a map spot height or when neither is available by a centralised position in an uppermost contour ring.  When the accurate survey has been conducted independent of the Ordnance Survey a (S) for ‘survey’ will appear adjacent to the 10FGR, a (TP) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘trig pillar’, a (B) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘bolt’ or a ‘block’, a (L) if the 10FGR is taken to the position of a ‘levelled’ height on old maps, a (HH) if the 10FGR is taken from a ‘hand-held’ GPS unit, a (SH) if the 10FGR is taken to a ‘spot height’ either on current or old maps and an (I) if the summit position has been ‘interpolated’ from contours.

Height (m) Summit:  This gives the map height in metres of the hill above Ordnance Datum Newlyn (ODN), often referred to as sea level.  Where a height is quoted to a decimal place it implies that the hill has been surveyed by GPS / GNSS receiver (these heights may not match current Ordnance Survey map heights).  Where a ‘c’ (circa) appears preceding the height it means there is no known spot height available and the height has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Grid Reference Bwlch:  This is the ten figure grid reference (10FGR) for the bwlch of the hill.  This has either been produced by an accurate survey, a map spot height or when neither is available by a centralised position between converging hill to hill and valley to valley contours.  When the accurate survey has been conducted independent of the Ordnance Survey a (S) for ‘survey’ will appear adjacent to the 10FGR, a (L) if the 10FGR is taken to the position of a ‘levelled’ height on old maps, a (HH) if the 10FGR is taken from a ‘hand-held’ GPS unit, a (SH) is the 10FGR is taken to a ‘spot height’ either on current or old maps and an (I) if the bwlch position has been ‘interpolated’ from contours.

Drop (m) Summit to Bwlch:  This column details the prominence of the hill; this is commonly referred to as ‘drop’ or ‘reascent’.  The drop is the height difference between the summit and connecting bwlch to the higher parent peak along the watershed.  The letter ‘c’ before the drop figure signifies there is no spot height or surveyed height known for either summit or more usually, the bwlch, therefore a part of the drop figure has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Drop (m) – Bwlch to ODN:  This gives the map height in metres of the bwlch above Ordnance Datum Newlyn (ODN), often referred to as sea level.  Where a height is quoted to a decimal place it implies that the bwlch has been surveyed by GPS / GNSS receiver (these heights may not match current Ordnance Survey map heights).  Where a ‘c’ (circa) appears preceding the height it means there is no known spot height available and the height has been estimated from contour interpolation.

Notes:  This column gives details relevant to the hill.


With special thanks to Aled Williams and Mark Trengove for their continued support and to Eberhard Jurgalski for taking Dominance to the masses.  Thanks are also due to the people who submit 10 figure grid references to the Database of British and Irish Hills (DoBIH) and for DoBIH making these available for public use.


This list will appear in biweekly or monthly instalments with the second Group listed being the Carneddau.  The Dominant Hills of the Glyderau will appear on the 3oth December 2015.

To access Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales list please click {here}







Wednesday, 9 December 2015

Simon Edwardes - Interview


Simon Edwardes is the host of the Hill Bagging website which is the online version of the Database of British and Irish Hills (DoBIH).  The Hill Bagging website originated in 1999 as The Mountains of England and Wales and is now highly regarded as a multifaceted resource for hill baggers.  To gain insight into the Hill Bagging website I took the opportunity to interview Simon and talk about the websites origins and its future (recorded 31.08.13).



Monday, 7 December 2015

Mapping Mountains – Hill Reclassifications – Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales


Pt. 68.2m (SH 383 949) - Dominant reclassified to Lesser Dominant

There has been a reclassification from the listing of Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales due to a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 and which has resulted in the hill being taken out of the Dominant list and included in The Lesser Welsh Dominant list.  The hill is in the first Group to be published in this new hill list; Ynys Môn, and is situated on the northern coast of the island and positioned to the north-east of the small community of Cemaes.

This Hill Reclassifications notification has awaited the listing of Y Trechol – the Dominant Hills of Wales to begin its publication, but the survey result is retrospective as the Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey that resulted in this hill’s reclassification was conducted on the 7th September 2014 on a beautiful sunny day in the company of Alex Cameron.

The hill can be accessed from its west or east via the Wales Coast Path which goes close to its summit, with its eastern approach on this path being joined by a public footpath that gives access toward the hill from its south-east.  However, if wanting a slightly extended walk this hill can be combined with its neighbours of Dinas Gynfor (SH 391 950) and Graig Wen (SH 397 947).

The hill is unnamed on current Ordnance Survey maps and I do not know a locally known name for it or one of historical relevance and therefore the point (Pt. 68.2m) notation is being used for the hill.
 
The hill had been listed with 50.75% of Dominance and was therefore included in the main Dominant list.  This was based on it having a 67m summit spot height on the Ordnance Survey enlarged mapping hosted on the Geograph website and an estimated bwlch height of c 33m based on bwlch contouring between 30m – 35m, these values gave the hill a prominence of c 34m, which was enough for it to sneak into the main Dominant list.

The survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 resulted in a 68.2m (converted to OSGM15) summit height and a 34.2m (converted to OSGM15) bwlch height, giving this hill a Dominance of only 49.85% and confirming its reclassification from The Dominant Hills of Wales list to The Lesser Welsh Dominant list.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Ynys Mon

Name:  Pt. 68.2m

Dominance:  49.85% (Lesser Welsh Dominant status confirmed)

OS 1:50,000 map:  114

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 38337 94993

Summit Height:  68.2m (converted to OSGM15)

Drop Summit to Bwlch:  34.0m

Drop Bwlch to ODN:  34.2m (converted to OSGM15)  


Pt. 68.2m (SH 383 949) now reclassified to the Lesser Welsh Dominant list.

For details on the survey that resulted in this hill being reclassified to a Lesser Welsh Dominant hill please click {here}

Myrddyn Phillips (December 2015)