Sunday, 31 December 2017

Mapping Mountains – Trimble Surveys – Pumlumon


29.10.17  Ffridd (SN 793 991 [only bwlch surveyed SN 790 993]), Copa Shon (SN 781 993) and Pen y Graig Fawr (SN 773 996)

Pen y Graig Fawr (SN 773 996)

Occasionally I think of the early list compilers and the resource, or lack of, that they worked with, these being the Ordnance Survey One-Inch maps or the Bartholomew’s maps of the day, or if they were lucky access to the Six-Inch series of maps.  Nowadays the resource is almost unlimited with a plethora of online maps available, both contemporary and historical, these include the multitude of spot heights on the Interactive Coverage Map hosted on the Geograph website and the 5m contouring on OS Maps which is the relatively recent update to Get-a-map, these are complimented by independent surveyors producing heights that are more accurate than the mass of data available via Ordnance Survey and by analysis of LIDAR data which is causing havoc with the status of many a hill.  If your thing is hill data, we are lucky to be living in such an age.  With these various items at a list compiler’s disposal it is relatively easy to analyse a hill’s drop, however interpolation of contours is still needed, and with one of today’s hill’s I wanted to see if it’s status as a Subhump listed with 99m of drop was correct, as Ordnance Survey bwlch contouring suggested that its drop value was nearer to c 90m which is the minimum required for Subhump status.  This hill is Pen y Graig Fawr, and to add further interest it also has an equal map heighted 217m summit named Copa Shon adjacent to it.

These two summits form a part of the land to the south-east of Machynlleth and I devised a route also taking in a lower P30 whose summit is immersed in conifer plantation, this route would also take me to the critical bwlch of whatever summit proved higher, thus saving me a drive to survey this one point.

As I walked up the narrow lane toward the farm of Croeslyn which is positioned close to the critical bwlch of the higher of these two equal map summited hills, a slow moving drizzled shower crept up the valley as light grey cloud pushed southward.  Having previously analysed this bwlch from the confines of a Google car I knew the lay of land and where a gate gave access to the field where the bwlch is positioned, however when I arrived at the gate giving this access I heard and saw the local farmer in his yard at Croeslyn, if I could see him, he could see me, which wasn’t ideal for the ten minutes or so that I wanted to spend in his field.  I slithered my way over the slippery gate and quietly crept across the field adjacent to a hedge which would at least give a semblance of cover.  Thankfully the critical point lay close to the hedge and therefore I didn’t have to wander in to the centre of the field, and within a few moments the Trimble was set up gathering data.  Once 300 datum points were stored, I closed the equipment off, took a few photos, packed it away and quietly slithered back over the slippery gate.

Gathering data at the critical bwlch of Copa Shon

I gathered data from the critical bwlch of Copa Shon just in time as the cow nearest the hedge is close to where the Trimble was set up just a few minutes earlier

I then headed up the narrow lane to where it ends and turns in to a track and then footpath across the rain soaked fields toward the conifered summit of Ffridd, as I did so the morning’s stillness was interrupted by what sounded like a rutting stag, it was a cow, but a cow that was obviously a little non-plussed that only a few minutes earlier a Trimble had been in its field.  I’d noted the herd of cows in the adjacent field when gathering data, and as access between each field was through a large gap in the intervening hedge I was wary of them heading my way, they did so shortly after I left, and in a manner that sounded as if they were reclaiming their territory.

The forested summit of Ffridd (SN 793 991)

A forest ride marked as a public footpath gave access between the conifers and an unmarked ride then led up towards the high point of Ffridd.  This was relatively easily found and involved hardly any tree bashing as higher ground always indicated the way forward and two further unmarked rides eased passage, when at what I considered the summit I stood on a tree stump and took a few photos.

The summit of Ffridd

It was only a short distance out of the forest once backtracking to the public footpath, immerging out of conifers however brief a visit to their murky depths is always a welcome experience and as I did so an occasional patch of blue and a glimmer of sunlight penetrated an otherwise light grey and white sky.  Across the valley the shapely profile of the Tarren hills were on grand display with the higher Cadair Idris dominating the horizon.

The next point to survey was the connecting and critical bwlch of Ffridd which proved to be beside a drainage channel next to the continuation of the same conifer plantation that embeds its summit.  I assessed the lay of land from various directions and repeated this process until deciding on where to place the Trimble and stood back as it gathered its customary five minutes of data.

Gathering data at the critical bwlch of Ffridd

I was now on open hillside, although this did involve a number of barb wired fences and an occasion gate easing access.  It felt good to be out on hills that I had not previously visited giving different perspective upon higher hills whose summits I had visited on many an occasion.

Tarren y Gesail from the approach to Copa Shon

I followed the forest boundary for a few fields before the bulk of Copa Shon rose ahead, this hill’s summit consists of grass a couple of metres from a fence and whose highest point is easy to distinguish.  As the Trimble gathered data I stood and looked north toward the Tarennydd and their extended ridge and across to two smaller hills whose summits I hoped to visit later in the day.

Gathering data at the summit of Copa Shon

Ffridd from the summit of Copa Shon

It was only a short walk down to the connecting bwlch and its critical point was easy to pinpoint, this was beside a gate on a wet bit of mud beside grazed and closely cropped grass.  As five minutes of data were gathered I stood beside the fence leading toward the gate and scribbled down all necessary details of the survey; time started, name of hill, feature, measurement offset, datum points taken, overall time of survey, number of satellites logged and measurement uncertainty of placement.  All of this is repeated for every survey and helps in passing the waiting game.

Gathering data at the critical bwlch of Pen y Graig Fawr

Packing the Trimble away it was only a short walk to the high point of Pen y Graig Fawr which is adorned by a trig pillar with its base next to what looks like a small outcrop of flattened and embedded rock, however the high point of this rock has a suspicious looking bit of concrete on it, so these rocks may have been placed at the summit when the trig was first positioned on the hill, if so, this reduces the hill’s natural summit height as I took data aligned with the highest rock.  As data were gathered the hill’s to the south glimmered in silvery light with delicate greens and autumnal shadows casting out across the land. 

Gathering data at the summit of Pen y Graig Fawr

Delicate colour upon the hills

Once the allotted five minutes of data were stored I packed the equipment away and headed down to the fence connecting with the gate where the Trimble had gathered the last bwlch data, and continued down on a track leading back to Penegoes where my car was parked.  It had been a good four hours on the hill and I now wanted to investigate the summit, and later the bwlch, of Coed Pant y Glo (SH 767 014); another P30 which I had not previously visited.


   
Survey Result:



Bwlch Height:  172.2m (converted to OSGM15)  

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SN 79089 99337

Drop:  41m

Dominance:  19.16%





Copa Shon

Summit Height:  217.3m (converted to OSGM15, and higher summit confirmed)  

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 78108 99347

Bwlch Height:  127.9m (converted to OSGM15)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SN 80033 98740 (bwlch position with Pen y Graig Fawr swapped)







Pen y Graig Fawr

Summit Height:  216.8m (converted to OSGM15, and lower summit confirmed)  

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 77352 99601

Bwlch Height:  182.4m (converted to OSGM15)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SN 77600 99583 (bwlch position with Copa Shon swapped)










Friday, 29 December 2017

Mapping Mountains – Hill Reclassifications – Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales


Gelli Hir (SN 999 883) – Lesser Dominant addition

There has been an addition to the listing of Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 and later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15, resulting in this hill being added to the Lesser  Dominant list. 

The criteria for this listing are:

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30s whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height, with the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30s whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The details relating to this hill’s addition to the Lesser Dominant list are retrospective as the confirmation was dependent upon a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which was conducted by Myrddyn Phillips on the 7th February 2014, the result was later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15 which was conducted by John Barnard, Graham Jackson and Myrddyn Phillips on the 2nd May 2014.

Prior to the survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 this hill’s twin 308m map heighted summit of Y Gaer which is positioned at SO 01350 87380 was prioritised as being listed as a Lesser Dominant.  The survey with the Trimble separated these twin map heighted tops and resulted in the deletion of Y Gaer, and the addition of Gelli Hir to Lesser Dominant status.

The name of the hill is Gelli Hir and it is adjoined to the Pumlumon range of hills which are situated in Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B2).  The hill has the A 470 road and the Afon Hafren (River Severn) to its east, and is positioned between the small community of Caersws to the north-east and the town of Llanidloes towards the south-west. 

As the summit of the hill is not on designated open access land permission to visit should be sought, however as a public footpath traverses this hill’s elongated and broad summit ridge in a north – south direction and passes close to the high point of the hill, common sense should prevail as a diversion to the summit is only a short distance away.

The addition of Gelli Hir to Lesser Dominant status was confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 and the result was later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15, resulting in a summit height of 307.2m (converted to OSGM15) which is 0.1m higher than its twin map heighted summit of Y Gaer, therefore with 124m of drop and 40.37% Dominance this hill is added to the Lesser Dominant list.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Pumlumon

Name:  Gelli Hir

Dominance:  40.37%

OS 1:50,000 map:  136

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 99903 88383

Summit Height:  307.2m (converted to OSGM15)

Drop Summit to Bwlch:  124m

Drop Bwlch to ODN:  183m 


Gelli Hir (SN 999 883) is now added to the ranks of Lesser Dominant hills



Myrddyn Phillips (December 2017)

Thursday, 28 December 2017

Mapping Mountains – Hill Reclassifications – Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales


Y Gaer (SO 013 873) – Lesser Dominant deletion

There has been a deletion from the listing of Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 and later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15, resulting in this hill being deleted from the Lesser  Dominant list. 

The criteria for this listing are:

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30s whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height, with the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30s whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The details relating to this hill’s deletion from the Lesser Dominant list are retrospective as the confirmation was dependent upon a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which was conducted by Myrddyn Phillips on the 7th February 2014, the summit result was later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15 which was conducted by John Barnard, Graham Jackson and Myrddyn Phillips on the 2nd May 2014.

Prior to the survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 this hill was prioritised as being listed as a Lesser Dominant over its twin 308m map heighted summit of Gelli Hir which is positioned at SN 99903 88383.  The survey with the Trimble separated these twin map heighted tops and resulted in the deletion of Y Gaer, and the addition of Gelli Hir to Lesser Dominant status.

The name of the hill is Y Gaer and it is adjoined to the Pumlumon range of hills which are situated in Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B2).  The hill overlooks the A 470 road and the Afon Hafren (River Severn) which is to its east, with the small community of Llandinam at the base and to the north-east of the hill and the town of Llanidloes towards the west south-west.  

As the summit of the hill is not on designated open access land permission to visit should be sought, however as a public footpath traverses this hill’s elongated and broad summit ridge in a north-east to south-west orientation and passes close to the high point of the hill, common sense should prevail and a diversion to the summit is only a short distance away.

The deletion of Y Gaer from Lesser Dominant status was confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 and the summit result was later substantiated by a survey with the Leica GS15, resulting in a summit height of 307.1m (converted to OSGM15) and a bwlch height of 215.8m (converted to OSGM15), which gives this hill 91.4m of drop and 29.74% Dominance, which is insufficient for its continued inclusion in the Lesser Dominant list.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Pumlumon

Name:  Y Gaer

Dominance:  29.74%

OS 1:50,000 map:  136

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 01350 87380

Summit Height:  307.1m (converted to OSGM15)

Drop Summit to Bwlch:  91.4m (converted to OSGM15)

Drop Bwlch to ODN:  215.8m 


Y Gaer (SO 013 873) is now deleted from the ranks of Lesser Dominant hills



Myrddyn Phillips (December 2017) 



Wednesday, 27 December 2017

Mapping Mountains – Trimble Surveys – Carnedd Wen


12.10.17  Moel Bentyrch (SJ 055 095)

Moel Bentyrch (SJ 055 095)

It was just after 8.00am and I was standing rather self-consciously in a field close to a main road and below buildings that looked suspiciously like a farm with a distant beep, beep, beep of the Trimble echoing around an otherwise quiet land.  I stood away from the Trimble and unsuccessfully tried to blend in to a hedge which at least gave protection from any inquisitive passing motorist, once 300 beeps were beeped I silently marched toward my surveying equipment and quickly closed it down and packed it away before walking toward a gate that gave access on to a narrow lane.

Gathering data at the critical bwlch of Moel Bentyrch

The early morning’s clandestine visit to a field was to determine the prominence of a hill listed as a Submarilyn with c 142m of drop.  The hill in question is Moel Bentyrch and when heading west from Welshpool it is the first hill of note to be encountered, I’d only visited once before in 2012 and had ascended via a narrow steep path across the hill’s upper eastern face, today I wanted to visit the hill from the west, but before doing so I wanted to pretend that I was a part of a hedge in a field whilst an unusual black and yellow piece of equipment was left atop a blue rucksack that for all wants and purposes looked as if it had been abandoned in said field.  Sometimes surveying can lead you to some beautiful, and also unusual places, but surveying for bwlch height has an eclectic enjoyment all its own.

Moel Bentyrch from the west

Looking down on the bwlch of Moel Bentyrch which is just beyond where the sheep are gathered and across the fence

Following a narrow lane on the opposite side of the main road I grabbed my chance between a large bungalow and what looked like another one of those suspicious looking farms and quietly made my way in to a field and slowly walked beside mature trees gaining height toward a fence.

As I gained height the sun appeared over the upper lip of the hill, casting low light as it did so, this heightened the colour and set against a delicate blue and grey sky it made a wonderful hour on the hill.

To my south-west Disgwylfa was bronzed and green set above its conifered lower slopes, with a foreground of dulled bracken almost illuminated by the sun.  My only companions were sheep, scampering this way and that, a white mass of small animal adding perspective to the scene.

Disgwylfa (SJ 033 074)

The summit area of Moel Bentyrch is crowned by an ancient enclosure with the customary banks and ditches on show, it is a marvellous viewpoint and somewhat dwarfs the Ordnance Survey triangulation pillar which sits forlornly to the south-east, however as the hill’s eastern side plunges down steeply, views from the vicinity of the trig pillar open the land to the east, which this morning was bathed in silvery light with patchworked fields emerald like split only by hedge and narrow lane.

The trig pillar overlooking the eastern wild lands of border country

Patchwork fields only split by hedge and lane

As the Trimble gathered summit data I soaked in the scene, a visible overload of joy, being on a hill either in the early morning or late evening brings a very different feeling to the land, one that is hard to quantify, but I find it uplifting and partly addictive, as I want the feeling it gives time and again, this is only enhanced by operating the Trimble as this gives reason to stand and savour the scene, something that whilst on a normal hill walk is not always taken.

Gathering data at the summit of Moel Bentyrch

I turned my back on the hill after packing the Trimble away and quietly sauntered down the upper eastern part of the hill, back to the road and civilisation.  Just a brief encounter was all that was needed this morning to re-invigorate the day and leave me content. 


Survey Result:


Moel Bentyrch 

Summit Height:  337.5m (converted to OSGM15) 
 
Summit Grid Reference:  SJ 05547 09518

Bwlch Height:  196.9m (converted to OSGM15)
  
Bwlch Grid Reference:  SJ 04552 09381

Drop:  140.6m (Submarilyn status retained)

Dominance:  41.65% 







Tuesday, 26 December 2017

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – Y Trechol –The Dominant Hills of Wales


Y Trechol –The Dominant Hills of Wales – Significant Name Changes

Y Trechol –The Dominant Hills of Wales are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height, accompanying the Dominant list is a sub list entitled The Lesser Dominant Hills of Wales with the criteria for this sub category being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list commenced publication on Mapping Mountains on 03.012.15 with its Introduction giving details to its compilation and criteria, with Change Registers also created for the Dominant and the Lesser Dominant category.

The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips and the posts that have appeared on Mapping Mountains detailing the significant name changes to the Dominant and Lesser Dominant list appear below presented chronologically in receding order.









Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Moel Fynydd (SH 697 161) - 13th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that appears in the following lists; Y Trichant and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:


Y Trichant All Welsh hills at and above 300m and below 400m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub category entitled the Sub-Trichant consisting of all Welsh hills at and above 300m and below 400m in height that have 20m or more and below 30m of drop.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips and the Introduction to the list and the re-naming and publication history was published on Mapping Mountains on the 13th May 2017.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – All Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.


The hill is adjoined to the Cadair Idris range of hills which are situated in the south-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A3), and it overlooks Llyn Gwernan to its east south-east and the town of Dolgellau to its east north-east. 

Moel Fynydd (SH 697 161)

The hill appeared in the 300m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Craig y Castell.  During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on a map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to and used many names that seemingly applied to a hill and whose placement was nearest the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are inappropriate, and as the positioning of the name Craig y Castell on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps implies, that part of the hill is known by this name and is directly associated with an ancient fortification, and in the case of the hill whose summit is positioned at SH 697 161 it was a local farmer who has lived the whole of his life under this hill that gave the name of Moel Fynydd.


Craig y Castell
321m
124
23
Marilyn. Clem/Yeaman. aka Moel Gwernan.


The local farmer is Emyr Rees who is aged 70 and is a Welsh speaker and has lived all of his life at Tynyceunant (SH 688 152), this farm is situated to the south-west of the hill.  When we met Emyr was wielding a large mallet and was in the process of fixing a post.  We met at the start of the access track beside the narrow road that leads to his farm and this hill was directly above us and therefore after introducing myself and explaining my interest in upland place-names, all I had to do was point and say ‘what about that one, has it a name?’, Emyr replied ‘that’s Moel Fynydd’.  Emyr also gave me a number of other names for near hills or the bounded land where the summit of each was situated, some have been detailed in previous Significant Name Changes posts, the one that has not will be detailed in a forthcoming one.

Emyr Rees of Tynyceunant

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the Y Trichant and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Moel Fynydd and this name was derived from local enquiry.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cadair Idris

Name:  Moel Fynydd

Previously Listed Name:  Craig y Castell 

Summit Height:  321.4m (LIDAR)

OS 1:50,000 map:  124

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 69777 16198 (LIDAR)   

Drop:  153.5m (LIDAR)


Dominance:  47.76% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (April 2018)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Bryn y Gwynt (SH 599 449) - 12th significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Bryn y Gwynt

Significant Height Revisions post for Bryn y Gwynt

Summit Relocations post for Bryn y Gwynt


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that now appears in the following lists; 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the hill’s height, drop, dominance and status confirmed by analysis conducted by Aled Williams of data produced via LIDAR.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau – All Welsh hills at and above 30m and below 100m in height that have a minimum 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.  Accompanying the main Twmpau list is a sub list entitled Sub-Twmpau with this hill being reclassified from the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau category.  The criteria for 30-99m Sub-Twmpau status are all Welsh hills at and above 30m and below 100m in height that have 20m or more and below 30m of drop.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – All Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.

The hill is situated in the Moelwynion range of hills and is placed in the Region of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and is positioned with the A 4085 road to its north-east and has the Welsh Highland Railway to its immediate west and overlooks the Afon Glaslyn also to its west, and has the village of Beddgelert to its north north-west and the town of Porthmadog to its south south-west.

The hill appeared in the Hills to be surveyed sub list that accompanied the main Welsh P30 lists that were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Coed Hafod-y-llyn.  This is the name of the wood where the hill is situated and would be an appropriate name to use if a name for the hill itself did not exist.


Coed Hafod-y-llyn        56m        SH598448        12418


Hill list authors are prone to list a hill by the name that appears nearest to its summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps, without much consideration for its local or historical confirmation, or whether map placement is appropriate, or as in this case whether an individual name for the hill in preference to the name of the wood it is situated in, exists.  This is not a practice I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name date can be improved by asking local people or by examining historical documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found, and in the case of this hill it was local knowledge from Aled Williams coupled with historical information from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps that gave the name of Bryn y Gwynt for this hill.  

Extract from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Bryn y Gwynt and this was derived from local enquiry and historical mapping.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Moelwynion

Name:  Bryn y Gwynt

Previously Listed Name:  Coed Hafod-y-llyn

Summit Height:  58.2m (data via LIDAR)

OS 1:50,000 map:  124

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 59949 44915 
  
Drop:  30.2m (data via LIDAR)

Dominance:  51.89% 


My thanks to Aled Williams for sending the details of this hill to me

Myrddyn Phillips (February 2018)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Coed Pant y Glo (SH 767 014) - 11th significant name change

Survey post for Coed Pant y Glo


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the hill’s summit height and drop being confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which took place on the 29th October 2017.

The criteria for the two lists that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau – All Welsh hills at and above 100m and below 200m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym for ‘thirty welsh metre prominences and upward’.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – All Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.

The hill is adjoined to the Pumlumon range, this group of hills are situated in the north-western part of Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B2), and the hill is positioned overlooking the A 489 road to its south and the Afon Dyfi to its north, with the town of Machynlleth towards the west. 

Coed Pant y Glo (SH 767 014)

The hill appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Bryntudor, with an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the North-East.  During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance, just use the name of a house situated close to the summit of the hill.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historical documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found, and in the case of this hill an appropriate name for it appears on contemporary as well as historical Ordnance Survey maps.


Bryntudor  141m  SH768014  13523/215  Name from buildings to the North-East


Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the enlarged map on the Geograph website, and it is the series of Six-Inch maps that give the name of the wood where the summit of this hill is situated as Coed Pant y Glo.  This name also appears on the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey Six-Inch map

Extract from the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by is Coed Pant y Glo and this was derived from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps as well as the contemporary 1:25,000 Explorer map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Pumlumon

Name:  Coed Pant y Glo

Previously Listed Name:  Bryntudor 

Summit Height:  140.7m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  135

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 76776 01435 

Drop:  91.5m (converted to OSGM15)

Dominance:  65.00%



Myrddyn Phillips (January 2018)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Cefn Digoll (SJ 264 058) - 10th significant name change

Survey post for Cefn Digoll


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Pedwarau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the height, drop and dominance of the hill being confirmed by a Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey which took place on the 24th and 28th March 2017, with the bwlch of the hill also analysed via LIDAR data by Aled Williams.

The criteria for the two lists that this name change applies to are:

Y Pedwarau These are the Welsh hills at and above 400m and below 500m in height that have 30m minimum drop.  The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams, with the introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 30th January 2017.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips.

The hill is a part of the Cefn Digoll range, this group of hills is situated in the north-eastern part of Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B1), and is positioned above the A 483 road and the village of Trewern to its north and the town of Y Trallwng (Welshpool) to its west north-west.  

The summit of Cefn Digoll

The hill appeared in the 400m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name Beacon Ring, this is the English name given to the summit area of the hill, with its Welsh counterpart being Caer Digoll.  During my early hill listing I did not lay emphasis on prioritising a name for a hill over that for its summit, and therefore on occasion I used a summit name in preference to that of the hill name, and the use of Beacon Ring is such an example as the hill is known in English as the Long Mountain.  This practice can be appropriate if the summit name is prioritised locally, otherwise for listing purposes it is customary to prioritise the hill name in preference to that of its summit.
  

Beacon Ring  408m  SJ265058  126216  Marilyn. Clem/Yeaman. Trig pillar marked on map.


Also during my early hill listing I thought it sufficient to use English or anglicised names for hills even if a Welsh name existed, this in the main is not a practice that I now advocate, especially if the Welsh name has historical evidence of use, and as the English names for this hill and its summit have Welsh counterparts, these being Cefn Digoll and Caer Digoll respectively, the hill name of Cefn Digoll is being used. 

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the Y Pedwarau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cefn Digoll, as this is the Welsh name for the hill.


The full details for the hill are:


Group:  Cefn Digoll

Name:  Cefn Digoll

Previously Listed Name:  Beacon Ring 

Summit Height:  408.3m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  126

Summit Grid Reference:  SJ 26476 05824  

Drop:  305.0m (converted to OSGM15)

Dominance:  74.69%



Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams (April 2017)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Cefn Nedd (SO 185 965) - 9th significant name change

Survey post for Cefn Nedd


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the height, drop, dominance and status of the hill being confirmed by a Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey which took place on the 9th March 2017.

The criteria for the two lists that this name change applies to are:

200m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at and above 200m and below 300m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.  

The hill is adjoined to the Beacon Hill range, this group of hills is situated in the north-eastern part of Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B1), and the hill is positioned above the B 4385 and the A 483 roads with the Afon Hafren (River Severn) between each, and has the small town of Trefaldwyn (Montgomery) to the east and the village of Aber-miwl (Abermule) to the south-west. 

The Trimble GeoXH 6000 gathering data at the summit of Cefn Nedd

The hill appeared in the 200m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name Goron-ddu.  During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on a map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate, and Goron Ddu is such an example as this name has been consistently applied by the Ordnance Survey to land taking in the lower north-westerly slopes of this hill, and not necessarily to the hill itself or its summit, and importantly the placement of this name in relation to the land it is applicable to has also been substantiated by local enquiry, including with the landowner.  The former is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historical documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found, and in the case of this hill the name of Cefn Nedd was derived from the Tithe map.  


Goron-ddu      207m      SO185965      136  216
  

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Historical map showing the placement of the name Gorun-ddu

Alan Harding was the second local farmer who substantiated the land that the name of Gorun Ddu is applicable to, and this matches the name placement on the above map, he also put me in contact with the land owner who also substantiated the placement of Gorun Ddu to be on the lower north-westerly slopes of this hill

The current Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map is not the best for name placement

The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

The enclosed land taking in the summit is given the number 551 on the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 551 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cefn Nedd on the Tithe map and described as Cloverley; it appears in the county named as Montgomery and in the parish of Llandysul.

When cross referenced in the apportionments the enclosed land is named as Cefn Nedd

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cefn Nedd, and this was derived from the Tithe map. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Beacon Hill

Name:  Cefn Nedd

Previously Listed Name:  Goron-ddu 

Summit Height:  207.2m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  136

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 18524 96503  

Drop:  89.1m (converted to OSGM15)

Dominance:  42.99%



Myrddyn Phillips (March 2017)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Clepyn Melyn (SN 961 464) - 8th significant name change

Survey post for Clepyn Melyn

Significant Height Revisions post for Clepyn Melyn


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Pedwarau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the summit height and dominance of the hill being confirmed by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which was conducted on the 28th December 2016, with the hill previously analysed via LIDAR data by Aled Williams.

The criteria for the two lists that this name change applies to are:

Y Pedwarau These are the Welsh hills at and above 400m and below 500m in height that have 30m minimum drop.  The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams, with the introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 30th January 2017.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips.

The hill is a part of the Mynydd Epynt range, this group of hills is situated in the south-eastern part of Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B-2), and is positioned above the B 4519 road and between the small communities of Garth to its north and Upper Chapel to its south-east. 

Clepyn Melyn (SN 961 464)

The hill appeared in the 400m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name Mynydd Eppynt, which is the composition of the name that appeared relatively close to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day.  



Mynydd Eppynt
    478m
    SN960463
    147
188
    Marilyn.   Clem/Yeaman.


Hill list authors are prone to list a hill by the name that appears nearest to its summit on Ordnance Survey maps, without much consideration for its local or historical confirmation, or whether map placement is appropriate, and in the case of Mynydd Eppynt (the name is now presented on Ordnance Survey maps with a single ‘p’ as Mynydd Epynt) the name is more appropriately associated with the hill range rather than an individual hill.  However, place-name data can be improved by asking local people and examining historical documents, and in the case of this hill it was a local farmer who gave the name Clepyn Melyn for land near to the summit of the hill, which to the authors knowledge is the main named feature of this hill and therefore appropriate to use for listing purposes.

Therefore, the name this hill is listed by in Y Pedwarau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Clepyn Melyn and this was derived from local enquiry.


The full details for the hill are:


Group:  Mynydd Epynt

Name:  Clepyn Melyn

Previously Listed Name:  Mynydd Eppynt 

Summit Height:  475.7m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  147

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 96124 46428 

Drop:  c 198



Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams (January 2017)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Cefn y Coed (SO 211 934) - 7th significant name change

Survey post for Cefn y Coed


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Trichant and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the hill's height, drop, dominance and status being confirmed by a survey by Alan Dawson with the Leica RX1250 and with the hill being subsequently surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which took place on the 25th October 2013 and 3rd October 2016 respectively.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

Y Trichant These are the Welsh hills at and above 300m and below 400m in height that have 30m minimum drop,  with the introduction to the re-naming and publication history of this list appearing on Mapping Mountains on the 13th May 2017.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The hill is a part of the Beacon Hill range, this group of hills is situated in the north-eastern part of Mid and West Wales, and is positioned above the A 489 road and between the town of Trefaldwyn (Montgomery) to its north, Yr Ystog (Churchstoke) to its east, Aber-miwl (Abermule) to its west north-west and Sarn to its south. 

Cefn y Coed (SO 211 934)

The hill appeared in the 300m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name Caeliber Isaf, which is a name that appeared close to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day.  During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on a map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are inappropriate, and Caeliber Isaf is such an example as this name has been consistently applied by the Ordnance Survey to land on the southern side of this hill.  The name Caeliber Isaf can be translated in to English as the lower fair copse, which is an unusual name if applicable to the highest hill hereabouts, and especially so when one considers that the name Caeliber Uchaf also appears on Ordnance Survey maps and has been consistently applied to land to the west of where the name Caeliber Isaf appears, the translation in to English of Caeliber Uchaf can be given as the upper fair copse.  Both names are known locally as applicable to areas or districts of land and not to hills.  


Caeliber Isaf
    355c
    SO212934
    137
  216
    Marilyn. Clem/Yeaman.
  

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the enlarged map hosted on the Geograph website.  One of the historical maps now available is the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map, which was the first map made publicly available by the Ordnance Survey and it is this map that has the name of Cefn y Coed running across the summit of this hill and beyond, and when coupled with detail later found on the Tithe map and also through local enquiry it formed the basis of this name being considered the most appropriate for this hill.

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ was the first map that Ordnance Survey published, and  they were based on the preceding Draft Surveyors map.  Their publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of Wales are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions of the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps forms another important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names and bridge the time frame leading to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

However, many local people now know the name Cefn y Coed to be applicable to an area/district of land and not necessarily to the hill, this was confirmed by Gordon Davies who has lived at Camp Farm all of his life, with his grandfather moving here in 1904, this farm is situated approximately 1.3 km west of the hill’s summit.  This hill was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 in the company of Rick Salter and Jenny Hatfield and we visited Camp Farm on our descent and I took the opportunity to ask Gordon about the name of the hill.

Gordon knows this hill as Cwm Bromley Top, as the land where the summit of the hill is situated is a part of the farm of Cwm Bromley.  This farm is situated to the east of the summit at grid reference SO 226 934.  He also knows the point at SO 20930 92921 as Black Hill and explained that this land takes in at least three bounded and fenced fields.  Gordon confirmed that Caeliber Isaf is a small district of land which is in the main on the other (southern) side of the hill, and that there are also other areas of land with Caeliber in their names that are also close by.

Gordon Davies

Although Gordon knows the hill as Cwm Bromley Top this is only applicable as the land where the summit of the hill is situated, is on land of Cwm Bromley farm.  Ideally this needed confirming and therefore I contacted Ted and Merle Davies who have farmed Cwm Bromley since Ted’s family moved there in 1937.  Ted is now aged 65 and told me that he knows the field where the high point of the hill is situated as the Tank Field, as there’s a water tank in the field.  I asked if he had ever heard, used or referred to the hill or the upper field as Cwm Bromley Top, he had not, although he did say that he’s referred to it as the top of Cwm Bromley, Ted then told me that Cefn y Coed is a little hamlet.  As there is no confirmation that Cwm Bromley Top is the name of the hill or the upper field by the farmer from Cwm Bromley farm it may be surmised that this name is not frequently used. 

I later checked the Tithe map, the term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number Q33 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cefn y Coed (conforming to standard modern Welsh) on the Tithe map and described as Pasture; it appears in the county named as Montgomery and in the parish of Ceri.

Accessing information on the Tithe map is simplified by the use of a split screen enabling the summit to be pinpointed on the map on the right and for the same point to appear on the Tithe map on the left


The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cefn y Coed on the Tithe map

Although there is now consensus amongst the local community that the name of Cefn y Coed is applicable to a small hamlet or area of land and not necessarily the hill, the Tithe map confirms that the bounded land at the summit of this hill that once took in what is now a number of individual fields was known at the time of the Tithe map as Cefn y Coed, and this is substantiated by the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map.  One may presume from this that Cefn y Coed is the name of the land at the summit of this hill, and in all likelihood is the name of the hill itself, and that the passage of time has supplanted this name to also take in the small hamlet and area of land surrounding the hill. 

Extract from the current Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the Y Trichant and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cefn y Coed, and this name was derived from the Tithe map and the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map, coupled with information given from local enquiry.  


The full details for the hill are:


Group:  Beacon Hill

Name:  Cefn y Coed

Previously Listed Name:  Caeliber Isaf 

Summit Height:  353.5m (Leica RX1250)

OS 1:50,000 map:  137

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 21163 93413 

Drop:  169.5m (Leica RX1250)

Dominance:  47.94%



Myrddyn Phillips (December 2016)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Moelfre (SH 558 375) - 6th significant name change

Survey post for Moelfre

Hill Reclassifications post for Moelfre


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that appears in the following lists; 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the hill's height, drop, dominance and status being confirmed by the survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 which took place on the 23rd February 2016, and which confirmed the adjacent easterly summit positioned at SH 56181 37683 as being lower. 

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:
   
30-99m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at and above 30m and below 100m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The hill is a part of the Moel Hebog range, which is a group of hills situated in the north-western part of north Wales, and it is positioned between the small communities of Morfa Bychan to the west and Borth-y-gest to the east south-east.

The westerly summit of Moelfre (SH 558 375)

The hill appeared in the 30m-99m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name Coed Borth.  This name was found through local enquiry with Dewi Jones and at a later date confirmed by Aled Williams; a resident and native of Porthmadog respectively.  As Ordnance Survey maps of the day did not give a spot height to the westerly summit, it was the easterly summit with its 72m map spot height that was listed, both have now been Trimbled with the westerly summit proving higher. 


Coed Borth
    72m
    SH561376
    124
  18/254
    

During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on a map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are inappropriate, and Coed Borth is such an example as although this is the locally known name for the wood close to the easterly summit of this hill, it doesn’t take in the actual summit, whilst the same wood has been consistently named as Parc y Borth on Ordnance Survey maps.  However, Aled has confirmed that the higher westerly top and its adjacent easterly lower top are locally and collectively known as Moelfre. 

Before enquiring with Aled I checked the Tithe map, the term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Accessing information on the Tithe map is simplified by the use of a split screen enabling the summit to be pinpointed on the map on the right and for the same point to appear on the Tithe map on the left

The name where the summit of this hill is situated is named Moelvra on the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 920 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Moelvra [sic] on the Tithe map and described as Pasture; it appears in the county named as Caernarfon and in the parish of Ynyscynhaearn.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by is Moelfre (spelling conforming to standard modern Welsh), and this was derived from local enquiry, as well as the land where the summit of this hill is situated being confirmed by the use of the same name on the Tithe map. 



The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Moel Hebog

Name:  Moelfre

Previously Listed Name:  Coed Borth

Summit Height:  74.1m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  124

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 55830 37553  

Drop:  36.3m (converted to OSGM15)

Dominance:  49.00%



Myrddyn Phillips (October 2016)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Y Faerdre (SH 781 794) - 5th significant name change

Survey post for Y Faerdre


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales; and the following details are in respect of a hill that was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 on the 16th January 2016.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at and above 100m and below 200m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  

The hill is a part of the Rhos range, this group of hills includes Moelfre Uchaf and is an extension of Mynydd Hiraethog and is situated in the northern part of Wales.  The hill is encircled on three sides by the town of Deganwy and overlooks the Afon Conwy (River Conway) to its west as it enters Conwy Bay. 

Y Faerdre (SH 781 794)

The hill appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented name Degannwy Castle Top, with an accompanying note stating; Name from remains of castle.  During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance, use the name of the castle whose remains are situated on this hill’s summit and add the word Top.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with research either conducted locally or historically an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found. 

Degannwy Castle Top
    107m
    SH782794
    115
  17
    108m on 1989 1:50000 map. Name from remains of castle.
      
Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the enlarged map on the Geograph website.  One of the historical maps now available is the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map which formed the basis for the first publicly available Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map, and it is the Draft Surveyors map coupled with local enquiry and detail on Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps that formed the basis for the change in this hill’s listed name.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map

Extract from the current Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The Draft Surveyors maps consist of the preliminary drawings made by the Ordnance Survey’s surveyors between the 1780s and 1840 and formed the basis for the first publicly available One-Inch map.  They were drawn at scales of six inches to the mile for areas considered of particular military significance and down to two inches to the mile for other areas.  Fair copies were then produced from these preliminary drawings to one inch to the mile and then copper plates were prepared for printing.  The Draft Surveyors maps for the whole of Wales are now available online and they form an important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names as they bridge the time frame between the late 18th century and the mid-19th century when the Ordnance Survey produced their first One-Inch maps. 

The summit of this hill has the remains of Castell Deganwy (Degannwy Castle in English) situated on it, and local enquiry as well as research online coupled with detail on Ordnance Survey maps indicates that the hill is also known as The Vardre, this is an obvious anglicisation of a Welsh word, and it is the Draft Surveyors map that gives historical documentation of its original form; Y Faerdre, the meaning of this word is an area of land where crops were grown under the supervision of the steward.  It is appropriate to use the name Y Faerdre as opposed to that of the anglicised form as the Welsh form is prioritised when list compiling.     

Therefore the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Y Faerdre and this was derived from a number of sources with the original Welsh form being used on the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map, and the anglicised form from local enquiry and contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Moelfre Uchaf

Name:  Y Faerdre

Previously Listed Name:  Degannwy Castle Top

Summit Height:  109.0m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 78160 79432
  
Drop:  c 77m

Dominance:  70.67%



Myrddyn Phillips (October 2016)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Coed Gaer (SH 799 808) - 4th significant name change

Survey post for Coed Gaer


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales; and the following details are in respect of a hill that was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 on the 16th January 2016.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at and above 100m and below 200m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  

The hill is a part of the Rhos range, this group of hills includes Moelfre Uchaf and is an extension of Mynydd Hiraethog and is situated in the northern part of Wales.  The hill is positioned between the south-eastern outskirts of Llandudno to its north-west and Penrhyn Bay to its north-east. 

The Trimble GeoXH 6000 gathering data at the summit of Coed Gaer

The hill appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented name Pen Coed Gaer, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood at summit. 

Pen Coed Gaer
    130c
    SH802810
  115/116
 17
    Two points of same height - other at SH799808. Name from wood at summit.
     
During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance, use the name of the wood near to the summit of the hill and prefix it with the word Pen.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with research either conducted locally or historically an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.   

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As an appropriate name for this hill already exists on Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps, the use of the invented and prefixed word of Pen is unnecessary, therefore the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Coed Gaer.



The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Rhos

Name:  Coed Gaer

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Coed Gaer 

Summit Height:  134.0m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 79924 80840 

Drop:  c 72m

Dominance:  53.72%



Myrddyn Phillips (September 2016)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Trwyn y Fuwch (SH 813 823) - 3rd significant name change

Survey post for Trwyn y Fuwch


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales; and the following details are in respect of a hill that was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 on the 16th January 2016.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at and above 100m and below 200m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  

The hill is a part of the Rhos range, this group of hills includes Moelfre Uchaf and is an extension of Mynydd Hiraethog and is situated in the northern part of Wales.  The hill is positioned overlooking the north Wales coastline and Ormes Bay which is also known as Llandudno Bay, and has the communities of Craigside to its west south-west and Penrhyn Bay to its south-east.

The Trimble  GeoXH 6000 gathering data on the summit of Trwyn y Fuwch

The hill appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Creigiau Rhiwledyn, which is a name that appeared close to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  


Creigiau Rhiwledyn
    141m
    SH813824
    116
  17
    aka Little Orme or Little Ormes Head. Clem/Yeaman. Trig pillar.
     

During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on a map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are inappropriate, and Creigiau Rhiwledyn is such an example as this name has been consistently applied by the Ordnance Survey to the cliffs that are positioned north-eastward of this hill’s summit, and although it can be appropriate to use the main named feature of a hill when naming it for listing purposes, in this instance the hill has its own name, and this is Trwyn y Fuwch.  In addition to its Welsh name the hill is also known by its English name of Little Orme.

Therefore the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales is Trwyn y Fuwch, and this was derived from a number of sources including the Dictionary of the Place-Names of Wales (Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan, Gomer Press 2007).  



The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Moelfre Uchaf

Name:  Trwyn y Fuwch

Previously Listed Name:  Creigiau Rhiwledyn 

Summit Height:  141.7m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  116

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 81314 82382 

Drop:  136m

Dominance:  96.97%



Myrddyn Phillips (September 2016)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Craig Berwyn (SJ 071 323) - 2nd significant name change

Survey post for Craig Berwyn


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that appears in the following lists; Y Pellennig, Yr Uchafion, 800m Twmpau and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the following details relating to a hill that was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 on the 21st June 2014.

The criteria for the four listings that this name change affects are:

Y Pellennig –The Remotest Hills of Wales comprise all Welsh hills whose summit is 2.5km or more from the nearest paved public road and which have a minimum 15m of drop.  The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams.

Yr Uchafion - All Welsh hills at or above 500m in height that have 15m minimum drop.  The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams. 

800m Twmpau - All Welsh hills at or above 800m and below 900m in height with 30m minimum drop.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips.  

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The hill is situated in the Y Berwyn, which is an extensive group of hills positioned in the south-eastern part of north Wales, and is relatively remote for a Welsh hill with the nearest towns being Llandrillo to the north-west and Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog to the east.

The Trimble GeoXH 6000 gathering data at the summit of Craig Berwyn (SJ 071 323) with the trig pillar atop Cadair Berwyn (SJ 072 327) in the background on the left

The hill first made an appearance in a hill list as Cader Berwyn, S. Top in a 1929 update to the Twenty-Fives which was compiled by John Rooke Corbett and published by the Rucksack Club Journal.  Since this time the hill has been listed a number of times and usually by names associated with that of Cadair Berwyn, which strictly speaking is the hill to its north positioned at SJ 072 327, and which has a triangulation pillar situated at its summit and a map height of 827m.

Unfortunately all previous hill list authors have used the map name that appears nearest to this hill’s summit, although doing this is convenient it has conjured up all manner of  combinations of inappropriate names centred around that of its adjacent hill, these names include; Cadair Berwyn New Top, Cadair Berwyn South Top as well as the use of the adjacent hill’s name; Cadair Berwyn.

The hill was only confirmed by the Ordnance Survey as the highest in the Y Berwyn when contacted by Bernard Wright who had recognised that the summit of the hill was higher than its adjacent northerly peak; Cadair Berwyn, and also higher than its adjacent southerly peak; Moel Sych, Bernard suggested the name of Craig Uchaf for this hill as it seemingly had no name for it on the map of the day.  This is the name previously given the hill in unpublished format within the Yr Uchafion prior to extensive place-name research for this area taking place.

As a result of this research the hill has subsequently appeared under the name of Craig Berwyn in all four of the previously mentioned lists, this is the name that some local farmers and shepherds know the hill by, ironically this name already appears on Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps.



The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Y Berwyn

Name:  Craig Berwyn

Previously Listed Name:  Craig Uchaf 

Summit Height:  832.0m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  125

Summit Grid Reference:  SJ 07163 32351 

Drop:  c 346m

Dominance:  41.59%



Myrddyn Phillips (July 2016)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Gelli Hir (SN 999 883) - 1st significant name change

1st survey post for Gelli Hir

2nd survey post for Gelli Hir


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Trichant and Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Waleswith the following details relating to a hill that was surveyed with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 on the 7th February 2014 and also on the 2nd May 2014 along with the Leica GS15.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change affects are:

Y Trichant These are the Welsh hills at and above 300m and below 400m in height that have 30m minimum drop,  with the introduction to the re-naming and the publication history of this list appearing on Mapping Mountains on the 13th May 2017.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - These are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those addition Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is 33% or more and below 50% of their absolute height.

The hill is situated in the Pumlumon range, which is an extensive group of hills in the northern part of mid Wales.  The hill is positioned to the south-west of Caersws and to the north-east of Llanidloes, with the small community of Llandinam and the Afon Hafren (River Severn) to its east.

Gelli Hir (SN 999 883)

The hill appeared in the 300m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s  v-g.me website under the name of; Rhosfawr, which at that time was taken as the name of the hill, however this is the name of a farm which is situated to the west of the hill’s summit.


Rhosfawr
    308m
    SN999884
    136
  214
    Clem/Yeaman. Twin top.


The name this hill is now listed by is Gelli Hir, this name can be translated as long grove, and this was derived from examination of the Ordnance Survey Historical 1:25,000 map as well as the Tithe map, coupled with tentative details from local enquiries.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

The Ordnance Survey Historical 1:25,000 map is probably the best OS map for placement of names relating to hills and their features, on this map Gelli Hir appears close to the summit of this hill and following its upper northerly ridge

When I first surveyed this hill I made place-name enquiries with a local resident to the south south-east of the hill.  The details are given below:


After visiting the summit of Y Gaer at SO 013 873, I descended to the farm of Cefn and surprised Graham Pugh who was heading to the farm yard from a large barn full of recently born lambs.  Graham is aged 53 and had lived in the local area for 25 years and at the farm of Cefn for 20 years, he originally comes from Staylittle / Penffordd-las (SN 887 920).  He can speak Welsh but said that he gets his ‘rights’ and ‘lefts’ muddled up and told me about a visit to a market where he was given directions and he couldn’t remember if the word meant left or right, we both chuckled at this.  I believe this was due to a lack of Welsh being spoken in the area where Graham now lives, so his use of the language is not on a daily basis.  I explained where I had come from and where I was heading.  We were soon talking about the name of the hill.

Graham told me he didn’t really know a name for this hill, I asked if he ever referred to the hill by any name and he said that he just calls it Top of the Bwlch.  The farm of Bwlch is situated at SN 995 875, it seems the summit of the hill is on their land.  I asked if he had ever heard the name of Gelli Hir in relation to this hill.  He then said that this was funny as he’d had a recent conversation with the person from Coedmawr farm, who had just bought the land going up to the top of this hill from the other (north-west) side and they had called it Gelli something.  The name of Gelli Hir (Gelli-hir on older maps) appears on current maps just below the summit of this hill.  However, on older OS maps this name appears as a ‘ridge’ name going across the top of the hill and down its northern ridge.


Graham Pugh of Cefn farm

Place-name research can be similar to fitting pieces of a giant jigsaw together, each piece is important, but on occasion the pieces (the information given) seem as if they do not fit together.  However, each piece of information is important and can be assessed against other information found at a later date.  And this was so with this hill’s name, as I already knew that the Historical 1:25,000 map has the name of Gelli Hir following the upper northern ridge of this hill, as this map is by far the most precise produced by the Ordnance Survey for place-name position I was inclined to believe that the name of Gelli Hir was appropriate to use for this hill, and the information given by Graham Pugh, although only tentative, was also substantive when coupled with the placement of this name on the old 1:25,000 map.  I hoped that the Tithe map would substantiate the use of Gelli Hir for this hill’s name.

Unfortunately the Tithe map for this area is almost unintelligible, however the number 2096 is given to the adjoining land to where the summit of this hill is situated, this number can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land given the number of 2096 is named as Allotment on the Tithe map, and importantly the next number; 2097, which is probably the adjoined land, is named as Gelli hir and is described as Pasture; these details are listed under the county named as Montgomery and in the parish of Llandinam.


Accessing information on the Tithe map is simplified by the use of a split screen enabling the summit to be pinpointed on the map on the right and for the same point to appear on the Tithe map on the left.  Unfortunately in this instance the Tithe map is almost unintelligible, however the number 2096 is given to the adjoined land


2096 is named as 'Allotment' with 2097 named as Gelli hir

The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Pumlumon

Name:  Gelli Hir

Previously Listed Name:  Rhosfawr

Summit Height:  307.2m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  136

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 99902 88383 
   
Drop:  124m

Dominance:  40.37%



For details on the first survey and the second survey of Gelli Hir

Myrddyn Phillips (June 2016)